Reading Time: 1 minuteIf we want to use JavaScript to split string to array of float, then we can simply use “split” method. For example if we have string in text box named textfield1 in our document form, we can simply convert data…

Reading Time: 1 minuteIf we want to use JavaScript to split string to array of float, then we can simply use “split” method. For example if we have string in text box named textfield1 in our document form, we can simply convert data…

Reading Time: 2 minutesAdvanced way to emphasize image in your html page by using jquery is to resize it on event .mouseover(function(){}); It is more effective then usage of .show(), .hide(), .fadeIn() and .fadeOut() functions described in previous article. So let’s start with…

Reading Time: 2 minutesIf you want to get started with jquery you need to consider your first steps in jquery first. After you have included your jquery reference in your script, perhaps easiest way to start with jquery is to hide an element,…

Reading Time: 1 minuteHow to start with jquery? First step is to download jquery. Choose your version (1 or 2), and preferably compact version (.min) that three time less in size then non compact. If you use downloaded reference, you must have apache…

Reading Time: 2 minutesOnce when you have installed Xamarin on your PC, you can get starting with Xamarin. You need to: Update Android SDK Tools Install USB device driver on you mobile Put USB option on your mobile on USB Debugging option. Check…

Reading Time: 2 minutesThis is an example how to start new Xamarin project cross platform solution. First thing to do is to start in Xamarin studio with Fileâ†’Newâ†’Solution. Then we choose other blank solution: Otherâ†’Blank Solution Now, we need to add new project…

Reading Time: 1 minuteAutomatic Fuzzy Logic Calculator Bipolar transistor simulation schemes Darlington pair Differential Amplifier Simulation NPN-BJT Common Emitter Amplifier NPN-BJT Common Emitter Amplifier with Negative Feedback NPN-BJT Common Collector Amplifier NPN-BJT Common Base Amplifier Push-Pull Output Relaxation Oscillator Diode simulation schemes Diode…

Reading Time: 3 minutesPower factor in power network is defined as the ratio of real power delivered to the load to apparent power. Strict mathematical definition of power factor (cos(Ï†)) is In here, P is active power, S is apparent power and Ï†…

Reading Time: 3 minutesVoltage mode control is regulating scheme for controlling switching mode power supply. This controlling method has only one feedback loop over output voltage. Control is achieved by pulse width modulation (PWM), where constant amplitude voltage sawtooth signal is compared with…

Reading Time: 4 minutesCurrent mode control also known as current programming regulating scheme is controlling method for switching mode power supply regulation. Specific of current mode control (CMC) is that this is a controlling method with two loops: Outer voltage loop Inner current…

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to forward dc-dc converter online. Forward dc-dc converter is actually transformer isolated buck dc-dc converter topology. To see this, we need to start form buck converter scheme. If we want to do galvanic isolation of the load, we can…

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to flyback dc-dc converter. Even though some authors presents flyback converter as transformer isolated boost converter, it is more closer to reality that flyback dc-dc converter can be explained as transformer isolated buck-boost converter. In order to prove this,…

Reading Time: 3 minutesBoost DC-DC converter online simulation Boost converter is third switching mode power supply topology without transformer, with one inductor and one capacitor (apart from buck and buck-boost converter). Boost or step-up converter topology is given in figure bellow. In boost…

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to buck-boost converter simulation. Buck converter is actually first switching mode power supply topology (first DC-DC converter) ever made. Being generally very efficient and consisting of only two passive elements that can store energy (capacitor and inductor), and only…

Reading Time: 3 minutesBuck or step down converter is switching mode power supply (SMPS) DC-DC converter. Go to buck (step down) DC-DC converter simulation. There is widespread request for power supply voltage adjustment for particular needs. For example, if there is micro processor…

Reading Time: 2 minutesMonostable multivibrator realized with ne555 timer circuit is given in figure bellow. Simulate ne555 monostable multivibrator online. NE555 is very handy for monostable operation too. Generally, monostable multivibrator must be triggered in order to operate. Once when it is triggered,…

Reading Time: 2 minutesSimulate ne555 oscillator online. Digital oscillator realized with ne555 timer circuit is given in figure bellow. This kind of digital oscillator is just modification of ne555 astabile multivibrator. The advantage of this modification is that diode provides different charging and…

Reading Time: 3 minutesAstable multivibrator (oscillator) realized with ne555 timer circuit is given in figure bellow. Simulate ne555 astable multivibrator online. NE555 is perhaps most widely spread integrated circuit in the world. Reason for widespread is need to easily obtain timer circuit as…

Reading Time: 2 minutesOp-amp summing amplifier and op-amp non inverting summing amplifier are analog circuits for analog summing of the input signals. Simulate op-amp summing amplifier. Simulate op-amp non inverting summing amplifier. Op-amp summing amplifier is given in figure bellow. By using superposition…

Reading Time: 2 minutesOp-amp differential amplifier is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp differential amplifier. Input in op-amp is already realized as differential amplifier with discrete components. Voltage gain from inverting input to the output is the same as voltage gain from non-inverting…

Reading Time: 2 minutesOp-amp instrumentation amplifier is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp instrumentation amplifier. Op-amp instrumentation amplifier is a circuit that combine op-amp differential amplifier with two input buffer amplifiers. This is very successful combination, since op-amp instrumentation amplifier has very high…

Reading Time: 2 minutesInverting integrator amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting integrator amplifier. Op-amp voltage integrator is the circuit that integrates input voltage over time. Input impedance is equal to R1, and feedback is capacitive (capacitor C).…

Reading Time: 2 minutesInverting differentiator amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting differentiator amplifier. Op-amp voltage differentiator is the circuit that differentiates input voltage over time. Input impedance is equal to and feedback is resistive (resistor R1). Output…

Reading Time: 3 minutesNon-inverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp non-inverting Schmitt trigger. Positive feedback is used with non-inverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp. The feedback is applied from the output to the non-inverting input of the…

Reading Time: 2 minutesInverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting Schmitt trigger. Positive feedback is used with inverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp. The feedback is applied from the output to the non-inverting input of the…

Reading Time: 1 minuteExponential amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate exponential amplifier. Exponential amplifier provides a exponential output for a linear voltage input. In the given schematic, output voltage can be calculated via equaling currents. Input current is In…

Reading Time: 2 minutesLogarithmic amplifier is realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate logarithmic amplifier. Logarithmic amplifier provides a logarithmic output for a linear voltage input. In the given schematic, output voltage can be calculated via equaling currents. Input current is…

Reading Time: 2 minutesOne realization of absolute value amplifier with op-amp and one diode is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp absolute value amplifier. In order to analyze given circuit, analysis has to be separated. VIN>0. If input voltage is positive, inverting input…

Reading Time: 3 minutesWien bridge oscillator realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate Op-amp Wien bridge oscillator. A Wien bridge oscillator is a type of electronic circuit with electric bridge as feedback. One half of the bridge is selective and it…

Reading Time: 2 minutesOp-Amp sawtooth generator – Miller integrator is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp sawtooth generator – Miller integrator Op-Amp sawtooth generator is a circuit that combine Miller integrator with discharging switch – signal transistor. Output voltage oscillate from GND to…

Reading Time: 2 minutesRelaxation oscillator realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate Op-amp relaxation oscillator. A relaxation oscillator is a circuit that combine Schmitt trigger with slow negative feedback realized with RC circuit. Output voltage oscillate from rail to rail (from…

Reading Time: 2 minutesInverting amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting amplifier. Input impedance is not very high, comparing to non-inverting amplifier. Actually, input impedance is equal to R2, since input voltage source must provide current that is…

Reading Time: 2 minutesNon inverting amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate Op-amp non inverting amplifier. Input impedance is very high, since the overall input impedance of a closed-loop non inverting amplifier configuration is: In here, AOP-AMP is open loop…

Reading Time: 3 minutesGo to R-L circuit simulation Series R-L circuit is the time circuit with resistor and inductor. Since current through inductor can’t be stopped instantly, freewheel diode must be added in parallel to inductor. Series R-L circuit with mosfet as the…

Reading Time: 1 minuteHartley oscillator is actually oscillator with L-C resonant circuit. JFET Hartley oscillator realized with N-channel JFET is given in figure bellow. Simulate JFET Hartley oscillator. Connected together, capacitor and inductor forms so called L-C resonant circuit. L-C resonant circuit makes…

Reading Time: 2 minutesJFET common source amplifier realized with N-channel JFET is given in figure bellow. Simulate JFET common source amplifier. JFET common source amplifier is unipolar FET single stage amplifier equivalent to bipolar BJT common emitter amplifier. It means that for JFET…

Reading Time: 1 minuteJFET Colpitts oscillator realized with N-channel JFET is given in figure bellow. Simulate JFET Colpitts oscillator. JFET Colpitts oscillator is similar with JFET Hartley Oscillator, but for Colpitts oscillator, excitation for active amplifier comes originally from capacitor voltage divider. In…

Reading Time: 1 minuteDiode voltage doubler circuit given in figure bellow. Simulate full wave diode doubler circuit. Diode voltage doubler i.e. voltage doubler rectifier operates as follows: during positive half period of the input sine voltage, diode D1 is forward biased, while diode…

Reading Time: 3 minutesDiode voltage multiplier circuit given in figure bellow. Simulate diode voltage multiplier circuit. Diode voltage multiplier operates as follows: during first negative half period of the input sine voltage, diode D11 is forward biased, while diode D12 is blocked. Capacitor…

Reading Time: 2 minutesDiode bridge full wave rectifier is given in figure bellow. Simulate: Diode bridge full wave rectifier. Diodes in Graetz bridge commutate input AC signal. Actually, for 80% of time all four diodes are reverse biased (cut off). During positive half…

Reading Time: 3 minutesGo to relaxation oscillator online simulation. Relaxation oscillator with two bipolar transistors is given in figure bellow. Another name of this circuit is astable mutivibrator. It is based upon two discrete transistors interconnected with so called regenerative feedback that is…

Reading Time: 2 minutesPush-pull amplifier realized with NPN and PNP BJT is given in figure bellow. Simulate push-pull output. Push-pull output is combination of NPN and PNP transistors, also called push pull amplifier. Each of the transistors operates as class B amplifier. NPN…

Reading Time: 2 minutesCommon base amplifier realized with npn bjt is given in figure bellow. Simulate npn bjt common base amplifier. Common base amplifier, is class A amplifier. Current gain is close to unity (slightly less), and voltage gain similar to one with…

Reading Time: 2 minutesCommon collector amplifier realized with npn bjt is given in figure bellow. Simulate npn bjt common collector amplifier. Common collector amplifier, also called emitter follower is class A amplifier, similarly as common emitter amplifier. But there is big difference. Voltage…

Reading Time: 2 minutesCommon emitter amplifier realized with NPN bjt with feedback is given in figure bellow. Simulate NPN BJT common emitter amplifier with negative feedback. Common emitter amplifier with feedback is class A amplifier, same as common emitter amplifier without feedback. Even…

Reading Time: 4 minutesGo to npn bjt common emitter amplifier simulation. Common emitter amplifier realized with npn bjt is given in figure bellow. Purpose of R1–R2 voltage divider is to bias NPN BJT into active mode and make possible amplification of any small…

Reading Time: 4 minutesGo to Differential Amplifier Simulation Purpose of differential amplifier is to generate output signal that is proportional to input signals difference. Block scheme of an general differential amplifier is given in figure bellow. Desired output voltage is proportional (or equal)…

Reading Time: 2 minutesDarlington pair realized with two NPN BJT transistors is given in figure bellow. Simulate Darlington pair. Darlington pair, also called Darlington transistor is actually two stage current amplifier with very high current gain. Input current is firstly amplified with input…

Reading Time: 4 minutesGo to Fuzzy Logic Calculator Fuzzy logic is brilliant engineering and data analysis approach proposed by Lotfi A. Zadeh. It is “exploded” now and even has it’s own IEEE Transaction. It means that this concept in controlling and data analysis…

Reading Time: 2 minutesPurpose of Transistor-Transistor TTL Logic is to do digital signal processing according to logic rule of Boolean algebra. The scheme of standard TTL Logic NAND with TTL Totem pole output is given in figure bellow. Input stage of TTL Logic…

Reading Time: 2 minutesTimer circuit is electronic scheme for obtaining signals that last specific time, or have predetermined intervals. If timer circuit generate signal with repetition time intervals it is called astabile mutivibrator. Astabile mutivibrator is also called relaxation oscillator. Point is that…

Reading Time: 2 minutesOperational amplifier or op amp is linear integrated device with property of almost ideal amplifier. Ideal operational amplifier is a three-terminal device with differential input that consists of inverting and non-inverting terminal and the output. Scheme of ideal operational amplifier…

Reading Time: 3 minutesOp-amp current offset, op-amp voltage offset and op-amp slew rate are important parameters of any operational amplifier. Every op-amp has high, but finite input impedance. So input biasing currents in op-amp have some small but non-zero value. Because transistors in…

Reading Time: 3 minutesMOSFET Transistor is electronic component with field effect, similarly as JFET Transistor. It has three terminals: source, drain and gate, but amplification is achieved not via reverse polarized PN junction, but with influence of the electric field formed within capacitor…

Reading Time: 2 minutesJFET Transistor is electronic component with field effect. It has three terminals: source, drain and gate. Main current in JFET transistor flows from drain to source. Space between source and drain is called channel. Depending on semiconductor type, channel can…

Reading Time: 2 minutesDiode is the simplest electronic components with only one PN junction. Diode has two electrodes: anode and cathode. Having one PN junction, diode is highly non-linear component with capability of conducting current in only one direction. This feature is called…

Reading Time: 3 minutesCurrent mirror is electronic scheme given in figure bellow. Current mirror is used as the current source and it is often used for transistor biasing. How does current mirror works? For transistor biasing in non-discrete (integrated) technology it is important…

Reading Time: 3 minutesCMOS logic gate circuits are made in CMOS technology. CMOS is abbreviation of Complementary MOS. MOS is abbreviation of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor. Basic circuit of CMOS logic is CMOS inverter given in figure bellow. N channel and P channel MOSFET that CMOS…

Reading Time: 3 minutesBipolar transistor is electronic components with three terminals and two PN junctions. Bipolar transistor has three electrodes: emitter, base and collector. It has capability of amplifying both current and voltage signals. Bipolar transistor consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions.…

Reading Time: 3 minutesGo to Wheatstone measurement bridge simulation Wheatstone bridge or Wheatstone measurement bridge is electric circuit for very precise resistance or impedance measurement. It has simple construction and generally looks like it is shown in picture bellow. It can operate in…

Reading Time: 2 minutesThevenenâ€™s theorem states that any collection of voltage sources, current sources, and resistors is electrically equivalent to an ideal voltage source with a single equivalent resistor. Steps of the analysis: Find equivalent resistor of the circuit by replacing load resistor…

Reading Time: 1 minuteGo to star-delta (y-delta) transformation calculator Standard 3 phase circuit can have different topologies, but most common are star (sometimes also called Y, T or wye) and delta topology (sometimes also called triangle or pi), both given in figure bellow.…

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to R-C circuit integrator simulation R-C or RC circuit integrator is kind of first order circuits. First order circuit means that it’s behavior is described with differential equation of first order. R-C circuit integrator is actually just series R-C…

Reading Time: 3 minutesGo to R-C circuit differentiator R-C or RC circuit differentiator is kind of first order circuits. First order circuit means that it’s behavior is described with differential equation of the first order. R-C circuit looks like it is shown in…

Reading Time: 2 minutesWhen complex number represent stationary AC signal, it is called phasor. Complex number and so phasor can be presented with two equivalent notifications: Cartesian coordinates Polar coordinates Knowing exponential representative of complex number, we have relation between complex number and…

Reading Time: 2 minutesNorton’s theorem states that any collection of voltage sources, current sources, and resistors is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source with a single equivalent resistor. Steps of the analysis: Find equivalent resistor of the circuit by replacing load resistor…

Reading Time: 2 minutesNodal analysis (also called node voltage analysis or branch current method) is practical method for electric circuit analysis with small number of nodes and possibly large number of mesh. All equations are written according KCL, so it is important to…

Reading Time: 2 minutesMesh analysis (or the mesh current method) is a method that is used to solve planar circuits for the currents (and indirectly the voltages). Planar circuits are circuits that can be drawn on a plane surface with no wires crossing…

Reading Time: 2 minutesBoth Kirchhoff’s current law and Kirchhoff’s voltage law can be directly derived from Maxwell’s equations. However, Kirchhoff’s circuit laws are simplified form of Maxwell’s equations designated for electric circuit analysis. Kirchhoff’s current law known also as KCL, Kirchhoff’s first law…

Reading Time: 2 minutesIDFT â€“ Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform calculator Purpose of inverse Fourier transform as well as IDFT – inverse DFT is to recover original signal from it’s sine and cosine Fourier coefficients. Schematically it is presented in figure bellow. Fourier Transform…

Reading Time: 3 minutesDFT – Discrete Fourier Transform calculator Purpose of Fourier Transform as well as DFT – Discrete Fourier Transform is to transform input signal (analog or digital) to sum of sine and cosine coefficients. Schematically it is presented in figure bellow.…

Reading Time: 1 minuteDelta-Star or Delta-Y Transformation Calculator Standard 3 phase circuit can have different topologies, but most common are delta Î” (sometimes also called triangle or pi) and star (sometimes also called Y, T or wye) topology, both given in figure bellow.…

Reading Time: 3 minutesSimulate active, reactive and instant power. In order to understand active power, reactive power and apparent power concept easiest way is to start from stationary AC signals. In every time instant product of voltage and current gives instant power P(t)=U(t)Â·I(t).…

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