Category: electronic

PFC Power Factor Corrector Circuit

Reading Time: 3 minutesPower factor in power network is defined as the ratio of real power delivered to the load to apparent power. Strict mathematical definition of power factor (cos(φ)) is In here, P is active power, S is apparent power and φ

Voltage Mode Control and One Cycle Control

Reading Time: 3 minutesVoltage mode control is regulating scheme for controlling switching mode power supply. This controlling method has only one feedback loop over output voltage. Control is achieved by pulse width modulation (PWM), where constant amplitude voltage sawtooth signal is compared with

Current Mode Control

Reading Time: 4 minutesCurrent mode control also known as current programming regulating scheme is controlling method for switching mode power supply regulation. Specific of current mode control (CMC) is that this is a controlling method with two loops: Outer voltage loop Inner current

Forward DC DC Converter Basics

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to forward dc-dc converter online. Forward dc-dc converter is actually transformer isolated buck dc-dc converter topology. To see this, we need to start form buck converter scheme. If we want to do galvanic isolation of the load, we can

Flyback DC DC Converter Basics

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to flyback dc-dc converter. Even though some authors presents flyback converter as transformer isolated boost converter, it is more closer to reality that flyback dc-dc converter can be explained as transformer isolated buck-boost converter. In order to prove this,

Boost or Step Up Converter Basics

Reading Time: 3 minutesBoost DC-DC converter online simulation Boost converter is third switching mode power supply topology without transformer, with one inductor and one capacitor (apart from buck and buck-boost converter). Boost or step-up converter topology is given in figure bellow. In boost

Buck-Boost Converter Basics

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to buck-boost converter simulation. Buck converter is actually first switching mode power supply topology (first DC-DC converter) ever made. Being generally very efficient and consisting of only two passive elements that can store energy (capacitor and inductor), and only

Buck or Step Down Converter Basics

Reading Time: 3 minutesBuck or step down converter is switching mode power supply (SMPS) DC-DC converter. Go to buck (step down) DC-DC converter simulation. There is widespread request for power supply voltage adjustment for particular needs. For example, if there is micro processor

Transistor-Transistor TTL Logic

Reading Time: 2 minutesPurpose of Transistor-Transistor TTL Logic is to do digital signal processing according to logic rule of Boolean algebra. The scheme of standard TTL Logic NAND with TTL Totem pole output is given in figure bellow. Input stage of TTL Logic


Reading Time: 2 minutesTimer circuit is electronic scheme for obtaining signals that last specific time, or have predetermined intervals. If timer circuit generate signal with repetition time intervals it is called astabile mutivibrator. Astabile mutivibrator is also called relaxation oscillator. Point is that


Reading Time: 2 minutesOperational amplifier or op amp is linear integrated device with property of almost ideal amplifier. Ideal operational amplifier is a three-terminal device with differential input that consists of inverting and non-inverting terminal and the output. Scheme of ideal operational amplifier


Reading Time: 3 minutesOp-amp current offset, op-amp voltage offset and op-amp slew rate are important parameters of any operational amplifier. Every op-amp has high, but finite input impedance. So input biasing currents in op-amp have some small but non-zero value. Because transistors in


Reading Time: 3 minutesMOSFET Transistor is electronic component with field effect, similarly as JFET Transistor. It has three terminals: source, drain and gate, but amplification is achieved not via reverse polarized PN junction, but with influence of the electric field formed within capacitor


Reading Time: 2 minutesJFET Transistor is electronic component with field effect. It has three terminals: source, drain and gate. Main current in JFET transistor flows from drain to source. Space between source and drain is called channel. Depending on semiconductor type, channel can


Reading Time: 2 minutesDiode is the simplest electronic components with only one PN junction. Diode has two electrodes: anode and cathode. Having one PN junction, diode is highly non-linear component with capability of conducting current in only one direction. This feature is called


Reading Time: 3 minutesCurrent mirror is electronic scheme given in figure bellow. Current mirror is used as the current source and it is often used for transistor biasing. How does current mirror works? For transistor biasing in non-discrete (integrated) technology it is important


Reading Time: 3 minutesCMOS logic gate circuits are made in CMOS technology. CMOS is abbreviation of Complementary MOS. MOS is abbreviation of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor. Basic circuit of CMOS logic is CMOS inverter given in figure bellow. N channel and P channel MOSFET that CMOS


Reading Time: 3 minutesBipolar transistor is electronic components with three terminals and two PN junctions. Bipolar transistor has three electrodes: emitter, base and collector. It has capability of amplifying both current and voltage signals. Bipolar transistor consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions.