Category: tutorials

Different tutorials on electric and electronic issues

git push origin master

Reading Time: 1 minuteIn order to push your source code, go into root folder of your project and start with the following command: git add . Then we must do commit with git commit -m “your comment” Result of commit is given in

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168-dc-dc-converters-online-simulator

Reading Time: 1 minuteIn this page, DC DC Converters online simulator is given for following DC DC converters: Boost or Step Up Converter Buck or Step Down Converter Buck-Boost Converter Flyback DC-DC Converter Forward DC-DC Converter

97-ne555-monostable-multivibrator

Reading Time: 1 minuteMonostable multivibrator realized with ne555 timer circuit is given in figure bellow. Simulate ne555 monostable multivibrator online. NE555 is very handy for monostable operation too. Generally, monostable multivibrator must be triggered in order to operate. Once when it is triggered,

95-ne555-digital-oscillator

Reading Time: 1 minuteSimulate ne555 oscillator online. Digital oscillator realized with ne555 timer circuit is given in figure bellow. This kind of digital oscillator is just modification of ne555 astabile multivibrator. The advantage of this modification is that diode provides different charging and

94-ne555-astable-multivibrator

Reading Time: 2 minutesAstable multivibrator (oscillator) realized with ne555 timer circuit is given in figure bellow. Simulate ne555 astable multivibrator online. NE555 is perhaps most widely spread integrated circuit in the world. Reason for widespread is need to easily obtain timer circuit as

Op-amp Summing Amplifier

Reading Time: 1 minuteOp-amp summing amplifier and op-amp non inverting summing amplifier are analog circuits for analog summing of the input signals. Simulate op-amp summing amplifier. Simulate op-amp non inverting summing amplifier. Op-amp summing amplifier is given in figure bellow. By using superposition

170-op-amp-differential-amplifier-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteOp-amp differential amplifier is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp differential amplifier. Input in op-amp is already realized as differential amplifier with discrete components. Voltage gain from inverting input to the output is the same as voltage gain from non-inverting

162-op-amp-instrumentation-amplifier

Reading Time: 1 minuteOp-amp instrumentation amplifier is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp instrumentation amplifier. Op-amp instrumentation amplifier is a circuit that combine op-amp differential amplifier with two input buffer amplifiers. This is very successful combination, since op-amp instrumentation amplifier has very high

82-op-amp-integrator-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteInverting integrator amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting integrator amplifier. Op-amp voltage integrator is the circuit that integrates input voltage over time. Input impedance is equal to R1, and feedback is capacitive (capacitor C).

83-op-amp-differentiator-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteInverting differentiator amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting differentiator amplifier. Op-amp voltage differentiator is the circuit that differentiates input voltage over time. Input impedance is equal to and feedback is resistive (resistor R1). Output

85-op-amp-schmitt-trigger-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteNon-inverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp non-inverting Schmitt trigger. Positive feedback is used with non-inverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp. The feedback is applied from the output to the non-inverting input of the

84-op-amp-inverting-schmitt-trigger-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteInverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting Schmitt trigger. Positive feedback is used with inverting Schmitt trigger realized with op-amp. The feedback is applied from the output to the non-inverting input of the

80-op-amp-exponential-amplifier

Reading Time: 1 minuteExponential amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate exponential amplifier. Exponential amplifier provides a exponential output for a linear voltage input. In the given schematic, output voltage can be calculated via equaling currents. Input current is In

79-op-amp-logarithmic-amplifier

Reading Time: 1 minuteLogarithmic amplifier is realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate logarithmic amplifier. Logarithmic amplifier provides a logarithmic output for a linear voltage input. In the given schematic, output voltage can be calculated via equaling currents. Input current is

77-op-amp-absolute-value-amplifier-with-one-diode

Reading Time: 2 minutesOne realization of absolute value amplifier with op-amp and one diode is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp absolute value amplifier. In order to analyze given circuit, analysis has to be separated. VIN>0. If input voltage is positive, inverting input

86-op-amp-wien-bridge-oscillator

Reading Time: 2 minutesWien bridge oscillator realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate Op-amp Wien bridge oscillator. A Wien bridge oscillator is a type of electronic circuit with electric bridge as feedback. One half of the bridge is selective and it

135-op-amp-sawtooth-generator-miller-integrator

Reading Time: 1 minuteOp-Amp sawtooth generator – Miller integrator is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp sawtooth generator – Miller integrator Op-Amp sawtooth generator is a circuit that combine Miller integrator with discharging switch – signal transistor. Output voltage oscillate from GND to

87-op-amp-relaxation-oscillator

Reading Time: 1 minuteRelaxation oscillator realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate Op-amp relaxation oscillator. A relaxation oscillator is a circuit that combine Schmitt trigger with slow negative feedback realized with RC circuit. Output voltage oscillate from rail to rail (from

76-op-amp-inverting-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteInverting amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate op-amp inverting amplifier. Input impedance is not very high, comparing to non-inverting amplifier. Actually, input impedance is equal to R2, since input voltage source must provide current that is

74-op-amp-non-inverting-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteNon inverting amplifier realized with op-amp is given in figure bellow. Simulate Op-amp non inverting amplifier. Input impedance is very high, since the overall input impedance of a closed-loop non inverting amplifier configuration is: In here, AOP-AMP is open loop

Freewheel Diode

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to R-L circuit simulation Series R-L circuit is the time circuit with resistor and inductor. Since current through inductor can’t be stopped instantly, freewheel diode must be added in parallel to inductor. Series R-L circuit with mosfet as the

127-jfet-hartley-l-c-resonant-circuit-oscillator-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteHartley oscillator is actually oscillator with L-C resonant circuit. JFET Hartley oscillator realized with N-channel JFET is given in figure bellow. Simulate JFET Hartley oscillator. Connected together, capacitor and inductor forms so called L-C resonant circuit. L-C resonant circuit makes

126-jfet-common-source-amplifier-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteJFET common source amplifier realized with N-channel JFET is given in figure bellow. Simulate JFET common source amplifier. JFET common source amplifier is unipolar FET single stage amplifier equivalent to bipolar BJT common emitter amplifier. It means that for JFET

128-jfet-colpitts-oscillator-simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteJFET Colpitts oscillator realized with N-channel JFET is given in figure bellow. Simulate JFET Colpitts oscillator. JFET Colpitts oscillator is similar with JFET Hartley Oscillator, but for Colpitts oscillator, excitation for active amplifier comes originally from capacitor voltage divider. In

92-diode-voltage-doubler-circuit

Reading Time: 1 minuteDiode voltage doubler circuit given in figure bellow. Simulate full wave diode doubler circuit. Diode voltage doubler i.e. voltage doubler rectifier operates as follows: during positive half period of the input sine voltage, diode D1 is forward biased, while diode

90-diode-voltage-multiplier-circuit

Reading Time: 2 minutesDiode voltage multiplier circuit given in figure bellow. Simulate diode voltage multiplier circuit. Diode voltage multiplier operates as follows: during first negative half period of the input sine voltage, diode D11 is forward biased, while diode D12 is blocked. Capacitor

Diode Bridge Simulation

Reading Time: 1 minuteDiode bridge full wave rectifier is given in figure bellow. Simulate: Diode bridge full wave rectifier. Diodes in Graetz bridge commutate input AC signal. Actually, for 80% of time all four diodes are reverse biased (cut off). During positive half

Astable Multivibrator with two Transistors

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to relaxation oscillator online simulation. Relaxation oscillator with two bipolar transistors is given in figure bellow. Another name of this circuit is astable mutivibrator. It is based upon two discrete transistors interconnected with so called regenerative feedback that is

Push pull output Push pull Amplifier

Reading Time: 1 minutePush-pull amplifier realized with NPN and PNP BJT is given in figure bellow. Simulate push-pull output. Push-pull output is combination of NPN and PNP transistors, also called push pull amplifier. Each of the transistors operates as class B amplifier. NPN

93-npn-bjt-common-base-amplifier

Reading Time: 1 minuteCommon base amplifier realized with npn bjt is given in figure bellow. Simulate npn bjt common base amplifier. Common base amplifier, is class A amplifier. Current gain is close to unity (slightly less), and voltage gain similar to one with

91-npn-bjt-common-collector-amplifier

Reading Time: 2 minutesCommon collector amplifier realized with npn bjt is given in figure bellow. Simulate npn bjt common collector amplifier. Common collector amplifier, also called emitter follower is class A amplifier, similarly as common emitter amplifier. But there is big difference. Voltage

89-npn-bjt-common-emitter-amplifier-with-negative-feedback

Reading Time: 2 minutesCommon emitter amplifier realized with NPN bjt with feedback is given in figure bellow. Simulate NPN BJT common emitter amplifier with negative feedback. Common emitter amplifier with feedback is class A amplifier, same as common emitter amplifier without feedback. Even

88-npn-bjt-common-emitter-amplifier

Reading Time: 3 minutesGo to npn bjt common emitter amplifier simulation. Common emitter amplifier realized with npn bjt is given in figure bellow. Purpose of R1–R2 voltage divider is to bias NPN BJT into active mode and make possible amplification of any small

Transistor Based Differential Amplifier

Reading Time: 2 minutesGo to Differential Amplifier Simulation Purpose of differential amplifier is to generate output signal that is proportional to input signals difference. Block scheme of an general differential amplifier is given in figure bellow. Desired output voltage is proportional (or equal)

Darlington pair or Darlington transistor simulation

Reading Time: 2 minutesDarlington pair realized with two NPN BJT transistors is given in figure bellow. Simulate Darlington pair. Darlington pair, also called Darlington transistor is actually two stage current amplifier with very high current gain. Input current is firstly amplified with input

101-basic-concept-of-fuzzy-logic

Reading Time: 3 minutesGo to Fuzzy Logic Calculator Fuzzy logic is brilliant engineering and data analysis approach proposed by Lotfi A. Zadeh. It is “exploded” now and even has it’s own IEEE Transaction. It means that this concept in controlling and data analysis

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